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Instructional Telecommunication,Challenges and opportunities

Instructional Telecommunication,Challenges and Opportunities

Instructional Telecommunication theoretically is one of the most recent discipline in education. It deals with integration of communication technology to enhance the process of learning/teaching at distance. For instance, Computer potentially can make education more immperessive with an appropriate technology integration. Based on system approach it emphasizes on role of the media in education. For instance,  computer technology is merely one possibility in delivery mode process. It is merely one of the several means available to reach the end. Like other technology and media, computer technology may or may not succeed in improving learning. Such learning does not come about by accident; rather, it needs to be fostered by effective management of technology particularly in the developing countries, where most of them face technology or digital gap. In fact, the present article is going to support the idea of open and flexible learning method as a complimentary approach to traditional educational structures in order to meet the new and challenging demands of education and 21st century learners needs.

Instructional Telecommunication is based on planned learning which uses new theories such as distributed learning and system theory. Teaching/learning normally occurs in different places. It requires a special techniques of course design, special instructional techniques, special methods of communication by media and technology, as well as special organizational and administrative arrangement to bridge the distance between the learner and instructor in virtual world.

The terms open, distance, flexible, and remote learning are used increasingly and loosely to describe a growing and diverse variety of learning delivery systems. The question of just what these terms actually mean has been a source of considerable debate in the literature. The speed of change and the rapid introduction of new developments have presented a considerable challenge, which attempts to capture and define key concepts. Increasingly, the temptation for many is to use some terms interchangeably. There are however critical differences between them. Instructional Telecommunication is more preferred than other concepts. For instance, the concept of ‘Distance Education’ emphasizes the separation between learner and instructor. Lack of interaction and communication among them is highlighted, whereas Instructional telecommunication can explicit more about this kind of relationship. The main assumption of this part of literature review is more cognition about these concepts, which makes it easier to bring the theory in practice. In order to increase theoretical knowledge about the two concepts some definitions are selected to be discussed.

The U.S. Department of Education’s Office of Educational Research and Improvement defines distance education as “the application of telecommunications and electronic devices which enable students and learners to receive instruction that originates from some distant location” (Bruder, 1989: 30). It is “an educational process in which a significant proportion of the teaching is conducted by someone removed in space and/or time from the learner for Hilary Perraton (1988: 34). Michael Moore defines distance teaching as “…the family of instructional methods in which the teaching behaviors are executed apart from the learning behaviors, including those in a contiguous situation would be performed in the learner’s presence, so that communication between the teacher and the learner must be facilitated by print, electronic, mechanical or other devices”. (1989)

The Instructional Telecommunications Council (ITC) define Distance Education as : “The process of extending learning, or delivering instructional resource-sharing opportunities, to locations away from a classroom, building or site, to another classroom, building or site by using video, audio, computer, multimedia communications, or some combination of these with other traditional delivery methods.”

As a result Distance learning continues to be a matter of concern both at the conceptual and implementation level. There is a great deal of confusion about terminology in the distance education field. There are some definitions (Moore, 1997), (Keegan, 1980), which describes distance education as a method of teaching and learning and some others as a system of education. It must be considered that most of the conceptual framework for distance courses mainly drawn from the conventional system. Hence, this approach highlighted a few changes in delivery of instructional method. As it is discussed earlier, any changes in some elements of instructional system can affect the other elements of the system interrelated between the elements, which makes new role and function. Indeed, it is a new system with a new interaction; those must be defined and recognized for instructional design, carrying out and evaluation. Ebrahimzadeh (1997:37) in this regard denoted: “this difference includes not only the process of learning and /or behaviors of the students, but also the staff how should help students through their learning to be independent and self-reliant. This shift from shaping the student behavior to organizising and structuring the learning process change distance education from a method of teaching to an industrial system of education”.’ As a result, distance course management and programming calls for new definition, approaches and operational systems as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements.

Before giving a definition of distance training, it should be pointed out that distance education is not an opposite form of face-to-face or conventional education. It is not synonymous with all learning-teaching arrangements that are not face-to-face or to be defined as the opposite of face-to-face education. It can be used whenever possible and necessary and educationally appropriate (Moore, 1987).

From the collected definition of the concept of distance education further definition presented by Daniel 1996 theoretically is more closer to the present study point of view: Distance education is the offering of educational programs designed to facilitate a learning strategy which does not depend on day-to-day contact teaching but makes best use of the potential of students to study on their own. It provides interactive study material and decentralized learning facilities where students can seek academic and other forms of educational assistance when they need it.

While many authors (e.g., Horton, 2000; Rosenberg, 2000) have defined the benefits of distance training, few have explained why it is important to sustain these programs. Certainly a primary factor is to foster innovation, but innovation cannot be regarded as an end in itself. Rather, distance training presents real economic opportunities to increase performance, maximize profitability, improve market share, reduce risks and liabilities, and enhance the corporate image and its public recognition.

Distance learning is a result of different form of communication. Indeed, distance learning occurs in a non-contiguous communication. While traditional form of education emphasizes face-to-face and two-way communication, distance education uses technology to facilitating and supporting the educational process. On the other hand, distance learning begins with distinguishing from face-to-face communication to telecommunication. Through using technology and mediated communication it again going to provide contiguous communication. The most important point is that both face-to-face and non-contiguously communication may or may not terminate learning. Another crucial thing is interaction between learner and source of learning. That is what it has been defined as instructional telecommunication. Theoretically, the main assumption of the present review of literature is that separation or distance between trainer and trainee does not means miscommunication or elimination of communication but mediated or telecommunication. Instructional telecommunication calls for special techniques of course design, based on selection and application of media and technology communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements. As the present literature review reveals that instructional technology is an under-used approach to training; the next paragraph will discuss the role of it in distance learning.

Role of Instructional Technology in Distance Education

As it is mentioned earlier, instructional telecommunication comes up from open and flexible learning approach. The approaches aimed to facilitate the instructional process in particular for adult learners and those who cannot by any reason attend an inflexible instructional program. In training courses flexible and open approach remains as a critical issue. Most of the training program must occur in their workplace. Instead of leaving their work place, instructional telecommunication can provide the opportunity to deliver the content in their workplace to improve their accessibility. On the other hand, the most important aspect is accessibility to continuing education to those who are employed, when they are free and have time, who are physically challenged, but are competent in a different way through various mode, and cannot reach the place of learning.

Relation between Instructional Institute and Learners in Technological Systems and Conventional Systems

Source: Chegini, 2003

Technology can help disseminate education from the best sources from around the globe, to whom , who can learn from their own place, pace, irrespective of age, sex, career, religion, and social–economic status, political boundaries and barriers, and who are in an urgent need of education, wherever, thus crossing all geographic constrain. While the research finds out indicated that learners learn better by doing, by working on real problems in real environments, instructional telecommunication can provide much better-suited environments than conventional system on instruction. In this manner two different roles for media can be considered; first is dissemination of knowledge and information e.g. whatever mainly is in the social environments; and the second is educating and training the knowledge and information e.g. whatever is in the educational environments.

One of the most important challenges of media in education is to how to shift from ‘knowledge dispenser’ to ‘learning facilitator’. Hence, as it is illustrated in the above diagram the most important role of the media and technology in instructional situation is to facilitate the communication between trainer and trainee to facilitate the learning processes. Playing this role in distance training makes a new obligation for media and technology with regard to design and implementation.

Distance learning applications consists of 5 key components that are critical to designing and implementing a quality distance training program (Moore & Kearsley, 1996).

Sources– The philosophical and theoretical framework necessary for understanding learning, learner needs, motivation and learning styles/strategies;

Design- The instructional design, media and assessment measures necessary to develop instructional materials;

Delivery- The technology necessary to convey the learning material to the learner(s);

Interaction- The communication/support to transmit the instructional contents and technology to prepare self instructional material; and

Learning Environment- The setting in which the learners receives the Instructional contents

As it has been pointed out, most important role of technology is filling up the distance between trainer and trainee through using communication technologies. Hence, distance training is an instructional system based on application of another form of communication between them, which must be defined.

The following Figure presented by Keegan (1986) points up four categories of media and technology in distance education:

Figure 2-10 -Category of Media and Technology in Distance Education

Source: Keegan (1986)

Five Models of Instructional Telecommunication in Terms of Media and Technology

Time Pl ace Pace Advanced

Flexibility Flexibility Flexibility Delivery Interactive

1) The Correspondence Model

– Print high high high low

2) The Multimedia Model

– Print high high high low

– Audiotape high high high low

– Videotape high high high low

– Computer Based

Learning high high high high

– Interactive Video high high high high

3) The Telelearning Model

– Audio Teleconferencing low low low high

– Video Conferencing low low low high

– Audiographic

Communication low low low high

  • Broadcast TV/Radio &

Audio low low low high

Teleconferencing low low low high

4) The Flexible Learning Model

– Interactive Multimedia (IMM) high high high high

– Internet-based high high high high

– Computer Mediated high high high high

Communication (CMC)

5) The Intelligent Flexible Learning Model

– Interactive Multimedia high high high high

– Internet-based high high high high

– Computer Mediated high high high high

Communication & Automated

Response Systems.

(Adapted from Taylor, 1995, 2000)

As a result of above discussion it could be concluded that Distance learning occurs in a non-contiguously communication. While traditional form of education emphasizes face to face and two way communication, distance education uses technology to facilitating and supporting the educational process. On the other hand, distance learning begins with distinguishing from face to face communication to telecommunication. Through using technology and mediated communication it again going to provide contiguous communication. The most important point is that both face to face and non-contiguously communication may or may not terminate to learning. Another crucial thing is interaction between learner and source of learning. That is what it have been defined as instructional telecommunication.

Instructional telecommunication calls for special techniques of course design base on selection and application of media and technology communication by electronic and other technology, as well as special organizational and administrative arrangements.

Instructional telecommunication a way to development in developing world. Therefore, Instructional telecommunication is a new discipline try to answer questions related to why and how it can meet the needs of distance learners through tele access to courses for the learners.


Four Stage Model of Instructional Design


Four Stage Model of Instructional Design


 Educational Technology is the systematic and scientific approach to designing, implementing, evaluating, and developing the teaching-learning process to find out the perfect techniques to solve educational problems. Educational technology is the backbone of modern education systems and it has provided systematic approaches to various activities like need of assessment, designing distance courses, developing material, instructional media, product evaluation, etc, which are summarized in four stages: Analyses, Design, Development and Evaluation. The conclusion is illustrated on following figure.

                                                              Relation between educational processes based on educational technology definition

Both concepts of instructional and educational technology according to their technological approach reflect on the stages of Evaluation as an essential to enhance the quality of the entire process of the quality of telecommunication where instruction is the most critical point. As Zieger (2004: 3) denoted “Without measured and deliberate application of pedagogical design, collaborative technologies can inhibit learning rather than enhance it. While distance learning can emancipate students in distant and remote locations from geographic, economic, and social constraints, it can isolate students from their community and thus offer an educational experience inferior to that of the traditional classroom. A review of current studies of online or distance learning programs reveals that the development and growth of a community of practice is vital to the success of distance learning. Consequently, design of distance learning programs must focus on identities and modes of belonging.”

Four stages of application of Instructional Design will be discussed further.  Those are basically consequences of theories in practice. For instance, Distrubuted learningtheory, open and flexible learning and Systems approach. System approach is a key fundamental element in almost all the above instructional design definitions. Therefore, application of this concept is inspected first.

 Application of Systems Approach

As mentioned before the definitions of Educational Technology emphasize the application of systems approach. Systems and system approach is one the common element in most of the instructional technology definitions; e.g. the (U.S. Commission on Instructional Technology; (Silber 1970); (Ely, 1999); (Romiszowski 1981). Since this study is going to investigate the use of Instructional Technology i.e. ‘systematic approach of Analysis, Design, Development, Evaluation’, System and System Terminology will be the key concepts of the study. One the most important distinction, which will be discussed further, is the difference between ‘systemic’ and ‘systematic’. “Systematic refers to an orderly, logical method of identifying, developing and evaluating a set of strategies aimed at attaining a particular instructional goal.” (kemp,1985:13). Scheram (1963) spoke of the advantage of the system approach and remarked: “the advantages of systems theory is in its ability to provide a holistic perspective of the phenomena being studied.” (Ambashta, 1986: 16).

Understanding System and Systematic Approach

This part of the literature deals with the definition of system. These definitions are collected from different authors, which provided a complementary perception of the concept of ‘System’. Hence, the further definition aims to bring different point of view and approaches to the concept.

Encyclopedia Autopoietica defines system as:

“Any definable set of components.” (Maturana & Varela, 1980: 138)

International Encyclopedia of Systems & Cybernetics elucidates that there are numerous definitions and have given the word and the concept even if limited to G.S. Theory and Cybernetics, the differences between these definitions are striking. However, comparisons do not destroy the notion. On the contrary, many interesting shades appear.

Accordingly, we give hereafter many definitions, obtained from authors of different countries and specializations. As much as possible, they are supported by comments of the authors themselves. In some cases a critical evaluation or comment has been added.

-“A group of independent but interrelated elements comprising a unified whole;

-A complex methods or rules governing behavior;

-A procedure or process for obtaining an objective;

-A group of physiologically or anatomically related organs or parts;”1

-A set of related elements that work together to accomplish a task or provide a service. For example, a computer system includes both hardware and software.

To put things into perspective here is G. Weinberg’s different explanation of system that: “The system is a point of view”. And similarly, for G. PASK it is a “universe of discourse” (predefined by a reference frame) (1961: 22-3).

All definitions are more or less complementary. Some are more embracing than others and others more specific. All in all, this is one of the most evident cases of polysemy in language and it would not be satisfactory to reject any off-hand without a careful scrutiny. It is because of the term system, which describes rather an abstract concept.

It should however be noted that no “point of view” and no “universe of discourse” on systems could exist without the simultaneous existence of something on which these subtle arts can be practiced and which is generally called “concrete system”, or perhaps more imprudently “real” system.

As a result, the simplest and synthetically defined opens the way to careless generalizations and simplifications.

Accordingly, the present literature will thus give a number of definitions; first general, next more specific, in every case with the required comments. Most definitions are from genuine systemizes or cyberneticians, and some more from other scientists or philosophers, because they seemed relevant. In conclusion, a critical synthesis will be proposed, even as the conclusions are by no means to be taken as definitive.

“A system is a set of elements dynamically interacting and organized in relation to a goal” (J. de Rosnay, 1990, p:93).

“A set of parts with a common destiny, which maintain their inter-relations, even when placed in a different environment” (Bonsack, 1990: 67).

“A set of inter-related elements”. (Bertalanffy, 1956 – Ackoff, 1972).

This sweeping and embracing general definition is thus explained by R.L.Ackoff: “…a system is an entity which is composed of at least two elements and a relation that holds between each of its elements and at least one other element in the set. Each of a system’s elements is connected to every other element, directly or indirectly. Furthermore, no subset of elements is unrelated to any other subset”.

This definition does not allow a clear distinction between logical or formal systems, for example, and dynamic concrete systems. Nor is the role of the observer in any way expressed.

“… Any set of variables that (the observer or experimenter) selects from those available on the real “machine” (Ashby, 1960: 16).

One very important feature of this definition is the emphasis upon the role of the observer or experimenter, who is supposed to “select” the variables, and whose intervention implies clearly that, in Ashby’s opinion, any system is a mere constructed model. Of course, some criteria would be needed, in order to avoid radical arbitrariness in the process of selection. A criterion should be, for instance, coherence, in relation to some general types of interconnections present in all systemic-cybernetic models. One should also note that Ashby postulates the existence of the real “machine”, an object “out there”, which may very well be differently modelized by different observers.

“The term system has been used in many ways by many people. Similarly, the perhaps more recent term ‘ system approach’ has been used in at least three senses by writers on the subjects. To some a systems approach education implies the use of educational hardware; closed-circuit television, teaching machines, film projectors, etc. Others draw parallels between the precise functional objectives used by systems engineer and the programme writer’s behavioral objectives; between model building and task analysis; between simulation and validation.

Thus, they define the systems approach as the application of programme learning principles to all aspects of a course. They would claim that the system approach is a scientific approach to structuring a course. Finally, still others would reserve the term system approach to describe the application of cybernetics to the teaching and learning processes.

In order to summarize the necessary concepts of System, figure shows the component of a system:

Figure 2-7: The component of a System (relationship between elements)


Source: Romiszowski, (1981: 6)

In above figure A, B, C and D are elements of system or a subsystem. Black arrows display the interaction between the elements of system. According to the systems definition a system is a series of interrelated elements wherein a change in one part brings about changes in all parts. As demonstrated any system has a boundary, which must be defined and located. In some of the related literature System is defined in different forms such as: ‘A system is a little black box of which we can’t unlock the locks. But find out what it’s all about by what goes in and what comes out.’ (Romiszowski, 1970: 11).

 A ‘system’ is defined as a set of inter-relation of elements that together accomplish a goal. Hence, it could be concluded that any system has a goal, elements, inter-relation of elements, boundaries, inputs and outputs. This is a step to acquire more cognition about the Systems in general and instructional systems in particular. Inter-relation between elements of an instructional system and how to manage it to accomplish the goals of the system is the key concept of this study. For example, once the goals and objectives of an instructional training system are determined, it is necessary to know more about how they are related to the objectives of instructional materials.

Thus, as mentioned before, the main aims of instructional technology is to solve the educational problems, which can be defined in terms of system. In other words, system theory has a very close relationship with the concept of educational technology and as is highlighted earlier, some schools of Educational Technology describe ET as the solution of instructional problems through analysis of educational systems.

2-12 System Analyses and its Application in Instructional Situation

The first step in system analysis is to define the system interest, its boundaries and the chief inputs and outputs across these boundaries. Quantifying these inputs and outputs defines the purpose and to some extent the efficiency of the system.

In order to understand the relationship between inputs, outputs and processes, it is necessary to understand the environment in which all of this occurs.

 Types of Systems

Systems are different in terms of goals, number of elements/ subsystems, size, etc. Systems may also vary in the sheer complexity of the inter-relationships. “For example a motor car is a much more complex than the inter-relationship between the various mechanical parts of the car may still be predicted in a deterministic fashion. We see therefore two types of system: Deterministic – ones which can be determined in advance, where every inter-relation between every part can be prescribed, and providing the system continue to function and does not breakdown, we know exactly how the system will behave at any particular time and under any influences from the environment; and secondly Probabilistic systems, that is systems where we cannot be certain on how the total system will behave under certain conditions of environment, although we can in some cases be fairly confident about the type of reaction which will take place”.(Romiszowski, 1970: 11)

 Systems can be classified according to their type to understand more about the peculiarity of characteristics. “Such a classification is useful because it identifies the sort of techniques which may be use to try to investigate a particular system. The techniques for investigating deterministic systems are different from those, which are necessary for investigating probabilistic system, and similarly the technique for investigating a simple system. (Romiszowski, 1970: 15).

 Development of Instructional Technology Process

As it is discussed above, three stages of instructional technology process includes Design, carrying out and evaluation. It appears from some definitions of instructional technology that it gives more emphasis to the products than the processes. Based on the application of system theory, the process of Designing and Evaluation are the main focal point in delivery of instruction according to the new approaches of Instructional technology.

Hence, the four stages include Analyses, Design, Development and Evaluation was introduced. Now, another model will be discussed in (Figure No. 2-8) to complement and organize the literature of the study, in particular to show the way of application of instructional technology based on systematic designing processes and products. Indeed, this model intends to explain more accurately the processes, interrelation and the dynamics of the systems.

                        The Main Phases of Instructional Technology Approach

Main phases, which are interlinked and interact together, diagnosis, planning, intervention or experimentation, and assessment (Above Figure ). Upon completing these phases we need to decide whether to return to the beginning of the process (analysis problem diagnosis) and start another cycle; or iterate to a revision of the planning phase; or proceed with scaling-up, starting another planning, implementation and evaluation cycle.

Instructional System Analysis

 Although not always possible, it is necessary to inquire about the target population. These are the folks who will actually be taking the course training, or working through the self-paced instructional materials. In the ideal form of a course delivery the contents of a training course must meet the needs of the learners as a result of the analysis process.

 Some instructional design theorists Bloom and others contend “the most important factor for an instructional designer is specific prior learning”. Theoretically, these approaches suggest that the main aims of learner analysis revolve around what learners already know about the subject and the prerequisite knowledge course or instructional unit.

It is also important to consider:

-Cognitive characteristics, such as learning aptitude, learning styles, prior knowledge of topic.

-Psychosocial characteristics, such as motivation, attitudes, socio-economics.

-Physiological characteristics, such as age, race, ethnicity, cultural and linguistic background.

  Instructional Design

 The concept of instructional design can be traced back to military training efforts during and immediately following World War II. At the same time the work of psychologists was revealing important new information about how human learning take place, including the importance of specifying details of a task to be learned or performed, and the need for active participation by the student or trainee to ensure learning. At the same time, audio-visual specialists were developing ways to utilize the recognized learning principles to designing effective films and other instructional materials.

At a glance to the literature about Instructional design it can be concluded that it may be used in four manners:

1. Instructional Design as a Process: Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities and tryout and evaluates all instruction and learner activities.

2. Instructional Design as a Discipline: Instructional Design is that branch of knowledge that is concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies.

3. Instructional Design as a Science: Instructional design is the science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. As it was discussed earlier instructional design can be considered as a technology.

4. Instructional design as a technology: Instructional design like other technologies has the ability of solving human problem. Today human knowledge about instructional design is different from a few decades ago. Hence, it is a process that is going to be better like other technologies.  

Measuring of Communication Skills

Measuring and Development of Communication Skills


Instructional Technology Approach in Communication for Education

Instructional Technology Approach in

Communication for Education


    Communication is a process by which a message through a selected way is transferred from a source to receiver with intent to affect the receiver behavior. In this point of view Communcati0on is a purpuseful action alike with the education. Therefore, any instructional situation could be define in terms of Communication. On the other hand, teaching/learning process occurs in a communication context between instructor and learner. The field of education is exerted by instructional message to be transferred betwenn this two important elemnts.
The present articles attempt to explain the Instruction technology approach in term of communication between learner and instructors.

‘The word Communication comes from the Latin communicare meaning to share. (Hills, 1986:1)”. According to Adair (1974:13)”it comes from the same Latin root as ‘Common’, namely the word communice, whose own roots are shrouded in mystery. The first part of it present no difficulty, for ‘com’ is known to be an English version of cum (with). The second part munis descend either from the early Latin onios (one).”  Communication can be defined as the process by which an idea through a selected way is transferred from a source to receiver with intent to affect the receiver behavior. The field of education is exerted by instructional message to be transferred. It must be considered that communication for education aimed to modify the receiver behavior. Therefore, education is a process by which an idea (selected massage) through a selected way (selected Media) is transferred from a source to receiver with intends to modify receiver behavior. Obviously both are purposeful activities with a main peculiarity in aims and objectives. Mahadevon (2005: 283) noted that:” For the success of communication in education, effective strategy may be adopted. Mechanical promotion of communication without vision and holistic perspective cannot succeed.”

Whereas this paper is going to investigate the use of mediated communication in education and training, it is necessary to discuss about the types of communication, and in particular about personal communication because of this form of communication is the most fundamental. Hence, it was started to establish some basic principal of interpersonal communication following by classification of the different kinds of communication before move to mediated communication.

 In the preface to the second edition of The Conditions of Learning, Gagné commented further on this shift to the information-processing model of cognition.therefore it can conclude that

 Robert Gagné instructional design theories is recognized as information-processing model of cognition.

According to Gagné, “This model posits a number of internal processes that are subject to the influence of a variety of external events. The arrangement of external events to activate and support the internal processes of learning constitutes what is called instruction” (Gagné, 1974).

 In term of where communication  happens or how many people are involved at a time, it classifies to I) Intrapersonal Communication, II) Interpersonal Communication III) Group Communication, IV) Mass Communication. In another category by Stone, Singletary& Richmond (2003:5) four areas of communication are categorize to: Interpersonal, Group, Organizational and Mass Communication. For the reason that Intrapersonal Communication have significance role in learning and educational situation in further the first category will be discussed.

  1. Intrapersonal Communicationreferred to what goes on inside people as they think, feel, value, react, imagine, dream, etc. “It describes one person talking to him or herself. It is the thought process. All of us think things through before we speak or act”. (Hiebert, Ungurati and Bohn,1988:2). Myers and Myers (1992) has emphasized that Intrapersonal communication studies play an important role in to provide instructional materials and noted that; “A dimension known as ‘intrapersonal’ has been the subject of psychological and cognitive studies which attempt to learn how people respond to symbols and how they make decisions or store and retrieve data in their brains.” (Myers, E.G. & Myers, M. T., 1992: 6).

  2. Interpersonal Communication includes transaction between people may involve a few individuals (two or three person) with each other. According to the definition “Interpersonal Communication is an ever-present, continuous, predictable, multilevel, dynamic sharing of meaning for the purpose of meaning our lives more effectively.” (Myers, E.G. & Myers, M. T., 1992: 15). Although this type of communication has not clear distinguish with others but it focus on face to face interaction like instructional situation.

  3. Group Communication is defined in term of numbers of people that participate in communication process at a time. Myers and Myers (1992) stated that field called group dynamics represents an interesting and special case of communication. It involves theories of group discussion, leadership, management, and decision making. In compare with two others level of communication not only number of participant increases, but also the level of involvement often changes. Hiebert, Ungurati and Bohn (1988:2) highlighted that “group communication has been institutionalized in the world of work as organizational communication; the memo replace the personal letter, and the conference call supersedes the trip to a meeting-work becomes a series of communication events.”

  4. Mass Communication referred to social groups through application of new technologies and mass media.

 The process of mass communication as what they set out to do, have been increasingly subject to systematic study on the basis of the following propositions:

  • The media are a growing and changing industry; they also comprise an institution in themselves developing their own rules and norms which link the institution to society. In turn, the media institution is regulated by society.

  • The mass media are a power resource a means of control, management and innovation in the society, which can be a substitute for force or other resources.

  • They provide a location (or arena) where, increasingly, the affairs of public life are played out both nationally and internationally.

  • They are often the location of the developments in culture, both in the sense of art and symbolic forms, but also in manners, style of life and norms.

  • They have become dominant source of definitions and images of social reality for individuals, but also collectivity for groups and societies, the express values and normative judgments inextricably mixed with news and entertainment.

 The study of mass communication is located within a large field of enquiry concern with human communication which is sometimes identified as communication studies.

There are alternative ways of dividing up this large whole, but one way is according to level of social organization at which communication take place. From this perspective mass communication can be viewed as the apex of a pyramidal distribution of a pyramidal as illustrated below:

 Level of communication process

 Society wide……………….. (e.g. Mass Communication)

 Institutional/ organization….. (e.g. Political System or Business Firm)

Intergroup or Association… (e.g. Local community,organizational communication)

Intragroup …………………. (e.g. Family)

Intrapersonal ……………….. (e.g. Couple)

Interpersonal ………………… (e.g. Processing Information)

 It is necessary to discuss about what baseline requirement for communication of any kind. To answer the question what is required to communicate to another, Anderson and Meyer (1988) denote: ” In very simple terms three things are required: (a) a base of common experiences about which to communicate; (b) some system to reference that base; and (c) a relationship that enable the mutual accomplishment of meaning.

Communication cannot be accomplished in a single act. Our writing of those words communicates nothing until they are read by you. This simple little notion tells us a lot about the concept of communication. It tells us that the communication event is depending on all members involved. In instructional situation effective communication play a central role and learning can be considered as a result of communication process between trainer and learner as well as education can be defied based on communication process. This concept like education is not random and learning can not occur by accident. In the other hand, to be successful in both processes, determining of goals and planning is essential. Communication truly does not have an opposite.

Learners usually learn in two phases and in two way of different Communication levels. According to the levels of communication (the above levels) the two ways are include Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Communication. In the first phases, learning starts when they are initially exposed to the material presented by the trainer in the classroom. This continues with self-study and review at a later time.

                      Intrapersonal Communication Interpersonal Communication

Explanation and expose


Self-study and review of the  material



 It is too important to pay more attention to how to prepare a text to review and stablish the learning from text materials. That`s the reseon why this part of the present article is discuss about the print and text material in classroom teaching/learning process. A typical classroom experience involves multiple, simultaneous activities or streams of information. These may include, but are not limited to, verbal and visual presentations, board notes, electronic exercises, overhead presentations, hyper-linked multimedia reference sources, as well as student questions, discussion, and notes. When a stream of material is reviewed in a post-classroom setting, the context given in the classroom is important for full understanding. Consider student notes, or instructor notes given to an absent student. Without the context of the instructor’s verbal presentation, the notes lack the context to give full meaning. Similarly, verbal instruction without facial expression and body language is difficult to correctly interpret. In sum, the first phase on learning is more highlighted in traditional instruction situation in compare with open and flexible systems. In fact, instructional telecommunication and distance courses are mostly based on self study. Hence, in this type of design role of learner and trainee is more imperative and in particular media and mediated communication play a critical role.

Print and Text

Print and text have most common usage more than the other media and technologies. Since this study aimed to design and produce an instructional text, the medium and how to apply it is more highlighted than other media. Indeed, other types of media are using this medium in different format. Written massages as a communication tool has a long back history and till now take a various forms. There is no medium more ubiquitous than print, and no mode more familiar than text in its many forms. “Print was part of the first teaching machine—the book—and books was the first mass-produced commodity “(McLuhan, 1964, p. 174). “Print has been the dominant medium to date in distance education” (Scriven, 1993, p. 73), and “distance students have traditionally spent most of their time studying alone, often using print materials only.” (Bates, 1995, p. 52). The question is whether this situation is likely to continue. The answer requires consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of text and print. The chief strengths of print and text have traditionally included:

 Cost—Bates (1995, p. 4) reports that print is one of the lowest cost one-way technologies.

Flexibility and robustness—print scores highest on these features (Koumi, 1994).

Portability and ease of production—with desktop publishing hardware and software, printing has become enormously simpler and its quality much higher (Bates, 1988). In addition, costs can be reduced with local production.

stability (Kozma, 1991)—organization and sequencing are positively affected, since text-only printed and online materials can be reorganized and resequenced with relative ease by cut-and-paste operations, using word-processors and HTML editors.

Convenience, familiarity, and economy—instruction and feedback are facilitated by the medium’s familiarity, as, for adept learners and the highly literate, are higher-order thinking and concept formation (Pittman, 1987).

In contrary print technology has some weacknesses. The major disadvantages of print are related to some of its advantages, and include those listed below (Newby et al., 2000).

Print is static, and may fail to gain adequate involvement from low-functioning readers. Attention, perception and recall, and active learner participation may thus be lower for less able learners.

Print is relatively non-interactive, or at least non-responsive, and may lead to passive, rote learning.

Print often requires substantial literacy levels.Print is accessible (to the literate), and comparatively low in cost; furthermore, online text is easy to produce, translates well across various platforms and operating systems, and in some of its forms, may be manipulated by the user if desired. However, print may be seen by some as the “slightly seedy poor relation” (Pittman, 1987) of other instructional media. Text’s lack of appeal is exacerbated by the alternatives to reading which are increasingly appearing, and which use multimedia (especially audio and graphics) and improvements in voice recognition and reproduction technologies to make reading less critical for users. As a result, non-print multimedia-based technologies could come to be regarded as cost-effective, especially in cultures or industries where high levels of literacy cannot be assumed, or where the costs of reading inefficiencies are high. Developments such as instant text messaging and e-paper could reverse this trend, giving print and print-based materials new life, at least until e-paper-based multimedia evolve to make text less important once more (Mann, 2001).

In sum, as it is mentioned earlier proper technology defined in term of more simply and flexibility to use. As a matter of high technology, a proper technology must keep in pace with its users. Inflexible media actually create barriers to learning; in particularly for adult learners. In this point of view great advantage of printed text is due to more flexibility to use. Hence, a simple, well design and structured text could be seen as a powerful effective technology in education and training. It could be anticipated that those students with a well designed notes and better text are more better learners Another advantage is printed text requires minimum requirements except reading and writing.

Whereas oral language is a “presentational” medium, text is truly a “representational” one. That is to say, text can be viewed as a re-presentation of spoken language in a new format—a format that overcomes transience, the major liability of spoken language. Due to the above advantages, students in a typical traditional classroom make oral teacher’s presentation to a printed one. Text reduces the memory demands of spoken language by providing us with a lasting record. This advance has served humanity by scaffolding cultural memory across time, enabling us to maintain historical records without continuous oral repetition. Text also permits us to reach amass audience dispersed in both time and space.

The act of creating text also helps us in a variety of ways. Once written, notes can be revisited at any time (provided they are not lost) and even passed on to another. We can create text to support memory, attention, or even comprehension. Text also helps us stay on course during our work. Think of the checklists we make to track our progress through a series of tasks.

The permanence of text supports fidelity not possible with speech. Not only can text maintain an accurate record of past events, it can also help us communicate information more exactly in the present. We can prepare a communication on paper, then read and revise the text to make sure we include all the necessary information. The exact record text provides lets us first convey complex concepts, such as philosophical arguments or historical interpretations, which in turn can be reread, reexamined, and reconsidered.


Efficiency of Weblogs In Adult Literacy

Efficiency of Weblogs In Adult Literacy

                                                       By: Dr. Yosef chegini, PhD.

The 20th century witnessed the revolution of communication systems via multimedia. The changes occurred in the fields of education, training and instructional telecommunication, etc., which are far beyond the bounds of our imagination. A glance looking to the new media, internet is one of the amazing one in term of multi diversity. As a result diversity in communication, new technology provides more possibilities to meet the diverse needs of Adult literacy. The new millennium may usher in a new dimension in the use of media in literacy both to adult and children. Computer-based instruction, interactive videodisc and teleconferencing and cross-country videoconferencing are some of the possibilities for the near future. The main theme of this paper framed the assumption of the development in literacy could be effected by extension of communication. Enhancement of communication may be achieved by choosing appropriate networks and by employing the audio-visual-scrip to materials and whatever can be done by appropriate application of Weblog as a media for adult literacy.

The present article briefly attempt to explanation of three imperative questions includes: What are media, Why media, Weblog as media and How to exploit Weblogs as  media in Adult literacy effectively.

 What are Media?

Media as a concept is plural of ‘medium’. It defines ‘as the carriers of messages, from some transmitting source (which may be a human being or an inanimate object) to the receiver of message (which in our case is the learner).

In some people instructional media refer only to complex items of equipment such as television or film. Webster’s defined media as: a way of communicating with the general public; newspapers, magazines, TV, and billboards. In other sources, the concept of media identify in some different manners: